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Title: Development of a Novel Intra-Operative Score to Record Diseases’ Anatomic Fingerprints (ANAFI Score) for the Prediction of Complete Cytoreduction in Advanced-Stage Ovarian Cancer by Using Machine Learning and Explainable Artificial Intelligence
Authors: Laios, Alexandros
Kalampokis, Evangelos
Johnson, Racheal
Munot, Sarika
Thangavelu, Amudha
Hutson, Richard
Broadhead, Tim
Theophilou, Georgios
Nugent, David
De Jong, Diederick
Subjects: FRASCATI::Medical and Health sciences
FRASCATI::Engineering and technology
Keywords: epithelial ovarian cancer
complete cytoreduction
anatomic fingerprints
peritoneal carcinomatosis index
intra-operative mapping
machine learning
explainble artificial intelligence
Issue Date: 2023
Source: Cancers
Volume: 15
Issue: 3
First Page: 966
Abstract: Background: The Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Index (PCI) and the Intra-operative Mapping for Ovarian Cancer (IMO), to a lesser extent, have been universally validated in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) to describe the extent of peritoneal dissemination and are proven to be powerful predictors of the surgical outcome with an added sensitivity of assessment at laparotomy of around 70%. This leaves room for improvement because the two-dimensional anatomic scoring model fails to reflect the patient’s real anatomy, as seen by a surgeon. We hypothesized that tumor dissemination in specific anatomic locations can be more predictive of complete cytoreduction (CC0) and survival than PCI and IMO tools in EOC patients. (2) Methods: We analyzed prospectively data collected from 508 patients with FIGO-stage IIIB-IVB EOC who underwent cytoreductive surgery between January 2014 and December 2019 at a UK tertiary center. We adapted the structured ESGO ovarian cancer report to provide detailed information on the patterns of tumor dissemination (cancer anatomic fingerprints). We employed the extreme gradient boost (XGBoost) to model only the variables referring to the EOC disseminated patterns, to create an intra-operative score and judge the predictive power of the score alone for complete cytoreduction (CC0). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were then used for performance comparison between the new score and the existing PCI and IMO tools. We applied the Shapley additive explanations (SHAP) framework to support the feature selection of the narrated cancer fingerprints and provide global and local explainability. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox regression. (3) Results: An intra-operative disease score was developed based on specific weights assigned to the cancer anatomic fingerprints. The scores range from 0 to 24. The XGBoost predicted CC0 resection (area under curve (AUC) = 0.88 CI = 0.854–0.913) with high accuracy. Organ-specific dissemination on the small bowel mesentery, large bowel serosa, and diaphragmatic peritoneum were the most crucial features globally. When added to the composite model, the novel score slightly enhanced its predictive value (AUC = 0.91, CI = 0.849–0.963). We identified a “turning point”, ≤5, that increased the probability of CC0. Using conventional logistic regression, the new score was superior to the PCI and IMO scores for the prediction of CC0 (AUC = 0.81 vs. 0.73 and 0.67, respectively). In multivariate Cox analysis, a 1-point increase in the new intra-operative score was associated with poorer progression-free (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03–1.09, p < 0.005) and overall survival (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01–1.07), by 4% and 6%, respectively. (4) Conclusions: The presence of cancer disseminated in specific anatomical sites, including small bowel mesentery, large bowel serosa, and diaphragmatic peritoneum, can be more predictive of CC0 and survival than the entire PCI and IMO scores. Early intra-operative assessment of these areas only may reveal whether CC0 is achievable. In contrast to the PCI and IMO scores, the novel score remains predictive of adverse survival outcomes.
ISSN: 2072-6694
Other Identifiers: 10.3390/cancers15030966
Appears in Collections:Department of Business Administration

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