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Title: A composite indicator of social inclusion for EU based on the inverted BoD model
Authors: Karagiannis, Giannis
Ravanos, Panagiotis
Type: Article
Subjects: FRASCATI::Social sciences::Economics and Business
FRASCATI::Social sciences::Economics and Business::Economics
Keywords: Social inclusion
Reverse indicators
Inverted BoD model
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
Volume: 88
First Page: 101654
Abstract: In this paper, after reviewing the existing modeling approaches for reverse indicators, we opt for the use of the inverted Benefit-of-the-doubt (IBoD) model when all the considered indicators are reverse, as is the case with composite indicators related to social inclusion. Using EU data for 2014 we provide comparative empirical results using the IBoD model and three data transformations employed by previous studies. We also provide a thorough analysis of the performance of EU countries during the period 2011–2020 in terms of the composite indicator obtained from the IBoD model. Our empirical results indicate that relative performance across the EU has neither improved nor deteriorated and there is evidence supporting local instead of global convergence in social inclusion with certain groups of countries.
ISSN: 0038-0121
Other Identifiers: 10.1016/j.seps.2023.101654
Appears in Collections:Department of Economics

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